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1,4-Butanediol CAS 110-63-4 Colorless Liquild GBL Intermediate
Butane-1,4-diol is a butanediol that is butane in which one hydrogen of each of the methyl groups is substituted by a hydroxy group. A colourless, water-miscible, viscous liquid at room temperature (m.p. 16degreeC) with a high boiling point (230degreeC), it is mainly used for the production of other organic chemicals, particularly the solvent oxolane (also known as tetrahydrofuran or THF). It has a role as a neurotoxin, a protic solvent and a prodrug. It is a butanediol and a glycol.
1,4-Butanediol is an industrial solvent that, when ingested, is converted to γ-hydroxybutyrate, a drug of abuse with depressant effects, primarily on the central nervous system. After reports of toxic effects of γ-hydroxybutyrate and its resultant regulation by the federal government, 1,4-butanediol and γ-butyrolactone, another precursor of γ-hydroxybutyrate and an industrial solvent, began to be marketed as dietary supplements. We investigated reports of toxic effects due to the ingestion of 1,4-butanediol and reviewed the related health risks.
Items of analysis
1,4-Butanediol is used industrially as a solvent and in the manufacture of some types of plastics, elastic fibers and polyurethanes. In organic chemistry, 1,4-butanediol is used for the synthesis of γ-butyrolactone (GBL). In the presence of phosphoric acid and high temperature, it dehydrates to the important solvent tetrahydrofuran.At about 200 °C in the presence of soluble ruthenium catalysts, the diol undergoes dehydrogenation to form butyrolactone.
World production of 1,4-butanediol was claimed to be about one million metric tons per year and market price is about 2,000 USD (1,600 EUR) per ton (2005). In 2013, worldwide production was claimed to be billions of lbs (consistent with approximately one million metric tons).
Almost half of it is dehydrated to tetrahydrofuran to make fibers such as Spandex.The largest producer is BASF.
Health effects and use as a drug:
FDA warning against products containing GHB and its prodrugs, such as 1,4-butanediol.
1,4-Butanediol is also used as a recreational drug known by some users as "One Comma Four", "Liquid Fantasy", "One Four Bee" or "One Four B-D-O". It exerts effects similar to γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), which is a metabolic product of 1,4-butanediol.When mixed with other drugs, misuse of 1,4-butanediol has resulted in addiction and death.
How does it work?
Butanediol is converted to gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in the body. GHB slows down the brain, which can cause loss of consciousness along with dangerous slowing of breathing and other vital functions. It also stimulates growth hormone secretion.
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