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|Grade:||Pharmaceutical Grade||Appearance:||Colorless Liquid|
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High Quality 1,4- Butanediol CAS 110-63-4 Pharmaceutical Grade GBL Replacement Products Transparent liquid
Product Name: 1,4-Butanediol
Grade: Pharmaceutical Grade
Appearance: colorless liquid
BDO is the short name of 1,4-Butanediol, it is a kind of colorless viscous oil-like liquid, combustible and can mixing with water. With freezing point of 20.1 Degree C, boiling point of 228 Degree C,171 Degree C(13.3kPa),120 Degree C(1.33kPa),86 Degree C(0.133kPa, the relative density of 1.0171(20/4 Degree C). The index of refraction is 1.461, flash point is 121 Degree C. It can soluble in methanol and ethanol, slightly soluble in ether. It has bitter taste and moisture absorption.
General Description: Odorless colorless liquid or solid (depending upon temperature).
Usage:1,4-Butanediol is used in the synthesis of epothilones, a new class of cancer drugs. Also used in the stereoselective synthesis of (-)-Brevisamide.
Air & Water Reactions:Highly flammable. 1,4-Butanediol is hygroscopic. Water soluble.
Reactivity Profile:1,4-Butanediol is heat and light sensitive. 1,4-Butanediol reacts with acid chlorides, acid anhydrides and chloroformates. 1,4-Butanediol also reacts with oxidizing agents and reducing agents. 1,4-Butanediol is incompatible with isocyanates and acids. 1,4-Butanediol is also incompatible with peroxides, perchloric acid, sulfuric acid, hypochlorous acid, nitric acid, caustics, acetaldehyde, nitrogen peroxide and chlorine.
Health Hazard:Ingestion of large amounts needed to produce any symptoms.
1,4-Butanediol (1,4-B, butylene glycol, or BD) is a thick, colourless liquid which is nearly odorless with a distinct bitter taste. 1,4-Butanediol is used industrially as a solvent and in the manufacture of some types of plastics, elastic fibers and polyurethanes. In organic chemistry, 1,4-butanediol is used for the synthesis of R-butyrolactone .
In humans, it acts as a depressant and a prodrug for Gam H-B where 1ml is equivalent to 1g of Gam HB. It is used as a recreational intoxicant with effects similar to alcohol.
1,4-Butanediol, as well as Gam B-L, will dissolve most types of plastic over time.For this reason, it is recommended to only transport and store the drug using a glass container, standard gelatin capsules (not vegetarian), or high-density polyethylene plastic (also known as #2 recycled plastic). To check the type of plastic used on a bottle, one can look at the bottom for a number in the triangle shaped recycling label.
|Chemical Properties||1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) is a colorless, viscous liquid derived from butane by placement of alcohol groups at each end of its molecular chain and is one of four stable isomers of butanediol.the hydroxyl function of each end group of the Butanediol reacts with different mono- and bifunctional reagents: for example with dicarboxylic acids to polyesters, with diisocyanates to polyurethanes, or with phosgene to polycarbonates. 1.4-Butanediol (BDO) is a high-quality intermediate. BDO and its derivatives are widely used for producing plastics, solvents, electronic chemicals and elastic fibers. Additionally BDO is also a building block for the synthesis of polyesterpolyols and polyetherpolyols. BASF is the most significant producer of 1,4-Butanediol and its derivatives worldwide.|
00001. Butanediol and its derivatives is used in a broad spectrum of applications in the chemical industry; amongst others in the manufacturing of technical plastics, polyurethanes, solvents, electronic chemicals and elastic fibres.
00002. 1,4-Butanediol is used in the synthesis of epothilones, a new class of cancer drugs. Also used in the stereoselective synthesis of (-)-Brevisamide.
00003. 1,4-Butanediol's largest use is within tetrahydrofuran (THF) production, used to make polytetramethylene ether glycol, which goes mainly into spandex fibers, urethane elastomers, and copolyester ethers.
00004. It is commonly used as a solvent in the chemical industry to manufacture gamma-butyrolactone and elastic fibers like spandex.
00005. It is used as a cross-linking agent for thermoplastic urethanes, polyester plasticizers, paints and coatings.
00006. It undergoes dehydration in the presence of phosphoric acid yielded teterahydrofuran, which is an important solvent used for various applications.
00007. It acts an intermediate and is used to manufacture polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polyurethane (PU).
00008. It finds application as an industrial cleaner and a glue remover.
00009. 1,4-butanediol is also used as a plasticiser (e.g. in polyesters and cellulosics), as a carrier solvent in printing ink, a cleaning agent, an adhesive (in leather, plastics, polyester laminates and polyurethane footwear), in agricultural and veterinary chemicals and in coatings (in paints, varnishes and films).
|Uses||butylene glycol is a solvent with good antimicrobial action. It enhances the preservative activity of parabens. Butylene glycol also serves as a humectant and viscosity controller, and to mask odor.|
|Uses||1,4-Butanediol is used to produce polybutyleneterephthalate, a thermoplastic polyester;and in making tetrahydrofuran, butyrolactones,and polymeric plasticizers.|
|Production Methods||Methods of manufacturing:
The most prevalent 1,4-BD production route worldwide is BASF's Reppe process, which reacts acetylene and formaldehyde. Acetylene reacts with two equivalents of formaldehyde to form 1,4-butynediol, also known as but-2-yne- 1,4-diol. Hydrogenation of 1,4-butynediol gives 1,4-butanediol. 1,4-BD is also made on a large industrial scale by continuous hydrogenation of the 2-butyne- 1,4-diol over modified nickel catalysts. The one-stage flow process is carried out at 80 - 160 deg C and 300 bar.
Mitsubishi uses a three-step process:
(1) the catalytic reaction of butadiene and acetic acid yields 1,4-diacetoxy-2-butene;
(2) subsequent hydrogenation gives 1,4-diacetoxybutane; and
(3) hydrolysis leads to 1,4-butanediol.
|General Description||Odorless colorless liquid or solid (depending upon temperature).|
|Air & Water Reactions||Highly flammable. 1,4-Butanediol is hygroscopic. Water soluble.|
|Reactivity Profile||1,4-Butanediol is heat and light sensitive. 1,4-Butanediol reacts with acid chlorides, acid anhydrides and chloroformates; reacts with oxidizing agents and reducing agents. 1,4-Butanediol is incompatible with isocyanates and acids; also incompatible with peroxides, perchloric acid, sulfuric acid, hypochlorous acid, nitric acid, caustics, acetaldehyde, nitrogen peroxide and chlorine.|
|Hazard||Toxic by ingestion.|
|Health Hazard||The acute toxic effects are mild. 1,4-Butanediolis less toxic than its unsaturate analogs,butenediol and the butynediol. The oralLD50 value in white rats and guinea pigsis ~2 mL/kg. The toxic symptoms fromingestion may include excitement, depressionof the central nervous system, nausea, anddrowsiness.|
|Health Hazard||Ingestion of large amounts needed to produce any symptoms.|
|Fire Hazard||Nonflammable liquid, flash point (open cup) 121°C.|
|Safety Profile||A human poison by an unspecified route. Moderately toxic byingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects: altered sleep time. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, mist, foam, CO2, dry chemical. Incompatible with oxidizing materials. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes.|
|Purification Methods||Distil the glycol and store it over Linde type 4A molecular sieves, or crystallise it twice from anhydrous diethyl ether/acetone, and redistil it. It has been recrystallised from the melt and doubly distilled in vacuo in the presence of Na2SO4. [Beilstein 1 IV 2515.]|
Legality of 1,4-Butanediol:
While 1,4-butanediol is not currently scheduled federally in the United States, a number of states have classified 1,4-butanediol as a controlled substance. Individuals have been prosecuted for 1,4-butanediol under the Federal Analog . A federal case in New York in 2002 ruled, but that decision was later overturned by the Second Circuit. However, a Federal District Court in Chicago ruled, and the Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals upheld that ruling. In the United Kingdom, 1,4-butanediol was scheduled in December 2009 as a Class C controlled substance. In Germany, the drug is not explicitly illegal, but might also be treated as illegal if used as a drug. It is controlled as a Schedule VI precursor in Canada.
Industrial Use of 1,4-Butanediol:
1,4-Butanediol is used industrially as a solvent and in the manufacture of some types of plastics, elastic fibers and polyurethanes. In organic chemistry. In the presence of phosphoric acid and high temperature, it dehydrates to the important solvent tetrahydrofuran. At about 200 °C in the presence of soluble ruthenium catalysts, the diol undergoes dehydrogenation to form butyrolactone.
World production of 1,4-butanediol was claimed to be about one million metric tons per year and market price is about 2,000 USD (1,600 EUR) per ton (2005). In 2013, worldwide production was claimed to be billions of lbs (consistent with approximately one million metric tons).
Water Solubility Miscible
Stability: Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, mineral acids, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides.
CAS DataBase Reference 110-63-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference 1,4-Butanediol(110-63-4)
EPA Substance Registry System 1,4-Butanediol(110-63-4)
Toxicity and harm potential
1,4-Butanediol is not active in its own right; its mechanism of action stems from its identity as a prodrug of GHB, meaning that it is rapidly converted into GHB in the body.
GHB is considered to be a safe and non-toxic substance when used responsibly or medically. The LD50 is above the active dosage, and there is no danger of acute toxicity when this compound is taken at appropriate dosages. However, it can be dangerous when used as a recreational drug or abused. There have been many negative reports from recreational users who have overdosed, combined GHB with alcohol or other drugs, or accidentally dosed themselves unexpectedly.
One publication has investigated 226 deaths attributed to GHB.Seventy-one deaths (34%) were caused by GHB alone while the other deaths were from respiratory depression caused by interaction with alcohol or other drugs.To avoid a possible overdose of GHB/1,4-Butanediol, it is important to start with a low dose and work your way up slowly by increasing the dosage in small increments as the exact toxic dosage is unknown.
Accidental ingestions of 1,4-Butanediol have also occurred due to inadequate storage methods. If 1,4-Butanediol is put into a clear liquid, glass, or bottle, it can be easily mistaken for water. It is recommended to clearly label your 1,4-Butanediol in writing and dye the liquid with blue food coloring so it no longer resembles a drinkable beverage. It is also recommended to store your 1,4-Butanediol in a container that no one would drink out of.
It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this drug.
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